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Revision:


Your Y11 mock exam is after Christmas.

The paper is 90 minutes long and will be the same format as your Y10 exam paper.

Here is a sample design question - it is easy to get full marks for this question if you address every point of the specification clearly and differently for each idea.



Topic 1.1 Fats


What students need to learn
The dietary function and sources of the following fats:
saturated
unsaturated
polyunsaturated
essential fatty acids.

Topic 1.2 Carbohydrates


What students need to learn
The dietary function and sources of the following carbohydrates:
sugar
starch
fibre/NSP (non-starch polysaccharides).

Topic 1.3 Protein


What students need to learn
The dietary function, sources and deficiency of the following proteins:
HBV (high biological value) protein
LBV (low biological value) protein.

Topic 1.4 Vitamins


What students need to learn
The dietary function ,sources and deficiency of the following vitamins:
fat soluble
A
D
water soluble
B1
B2
folate/folic acid
C.

Topic 1.5 Minerals


What students need to learn
The functions, sources and deficiency of the following minerals:
calcium
iron
sodium
fluoride.

Topic 1.6 Energy balance

What students need to learn
Knowledge and understanding of the following nutritional concepts:
use of energy in the body
mechanical, for example, movement of muscles
chemical, for example, metabolic reactions
heat, for example, maintain body temperature
electrical, for example, transmission of nervous impulses
energy requirements
age
gender
occupation
physical activity and exercise
life stage, for example, pregnancy
balanced diet
DRVs (dietary reference values) click here
energy provided from
protein
fat
carbohydrate.

Topic 1.7 Dietary guidelines

What students need to learn
Knowledge and understanding of the following nutritional concepts of
healthy eating:
eat less sugar
eat less saturated and hydrogenated fat
eat more fibre, starchy, low GI (glycaemic index) foods click here
eat less salt click here

Topic 1.8 Government recommendations

What students need to learn
Knowledge and understanding of the following nutritional concepts:
five-a-day click here
nutritional labelling click here
‘eat-well-plate’ (current UK food choice model) click here
recommended fish intake click here

Topic 1.9 Individual nutritional requirements

What students need to learn
Knowledge and understanding of the following ‘diets’, nutritional
requirements, good food sources of nutrients and modification of
ingredients and recipes to suit user needs:
pregnancy click here
foods to avoid
folic acid recommendation
infants up to one year click here
toddlers up to five years and school age children click here
adolescents click here
adults
senior citizens click here
illness and convalescence.

Topic 1.10 Special diets

What students need to learn
Knowledge and understanding of the following diets, nutritional
requirements, good food sources of nutrients and modification of
ingredients and recipes to suit user needs:
vegetarian click here
vegan (no animal products eaten)
lacto-ovo (will eat milk and eggs)
lacto (will eat milk)
ovo (will eat eggs)
intolerances
lactose (intolerance to a particular sugar in milk) click here
medical
diabetes mellitus/diabetic click here
CHD (coronary heart disease) click here
obesity click here
allergy: nut click here , celiac. click here

Topic 1.11 Ethnic and religious groups

What students need to learn
Knowledge and understanding of the following ethnic and religious
groups food rules:
Hindu faith
Muslim faith
Jewish faith.



Topic 2.1 Primary foods

What students need to learn
Knowledge of the nutritional content, uses, types and functional
properties of the following primary foods:
  • cereals
  • wheat
  • rice
  • maize/corn
  • oats
  • milk and dairy
  • milk
  • cream
  • cheese
  • yoghurt
  • meat and fish
  • alternative protein foods
  • Quorn™, TVP (soya), tofu
  • pulses and peanuts
  • fruit and vegetables
  • for eggs
  • pasteurised
  • liquid
  • frozen
  • dried
  • fresh
  • fats and oils
  • butter
  • margarine
  • low fat spread
  • plant oils
  • olive, corn, sunflower
  • sugar.



Topic 2.2 Functional properties and working characteristics

What students need to learn
Knowledge and understanding of the properties and working
characteristics of raw materials and ingredients and how their different
functional properties affect finished products.
thickening and gelatinisation
setting
coagulation
gelation
aeration
foaming
fermentation
shortening
fortification
browning
binding
coating
glazing
emulsification
dextrinisation
caramelisation.



Topic 2.3 Secondary foods

See revision guide pages 49-51

What students need to learn:
Knowledge and understanding that by combining primary foods dditional properties are produced:
  • increased nutrition, for example adding eggs to a dough mixture can increase protein content
  • improved organoleptic (sensory) qualities, for example changing appearance to make product more attractive, using milk to glaze pastry to produce a shiny finish, using icing to decorate a cake, grilled cheese topping on a pie
  • changing texture by addition of seeds or dried fruit, for example, seeds on top and in bread, seeds added to a dessert, for example, crunchy crumble topping
  • changing flavour, for example, adding herbs to pastry or butter, lemon or orange zest/juice to cakes, cream to sauces, spices to biscuits and sauces.

Topic 3.1 Preservation

See text book pages 52 - 57

What students need to learn:

Knowledge and understanding of the principles of food preservation.
Students require only a basic knowledge and understanding of the
following:
  • food spoilage click here
  • natural decay, action of enzymes, contamination by microorganisms click here
  • food poisoning, bacteria, toxins, infections click here
  • factors affecting growth (temperature, time, food, pH, O2, moisture)
  • food hygiene, correct handling, correct cooking temperature, click here and here
  • correct storage of food stuffs text book page 55
  • danger zone
  • kitchen hygiene
  • personal hygiene
  • cross-contamination text book pages 52 - 57
  • The Food Safety Act 1990 click here
  • The Food Hygiene (England), Regulations 2006. click here

Topic 3.2 Preservation methods

What students need to learn
Knowledge and understanding of the methods of food preservation:

See text book pages 14-17
  • hot — heat in reducing number of microbes
  • cold — removal of heat
  • dry — removal of water
  • chemical — additives
  • packaging — modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)/vacuum
  • irradiation.

Topic 3.3 Processing

What students need to learn
An understanding of the principles of food processing:

See text book pages 12-13
  • primary
  • basic treatment of raw food materials to make them suitable for either further food processing or immediate consumption, for example, pasteurisation of milk, milling wheat, washing fruit and vegetables.

  • secondary
  • further treatment to make food materials into food products, for example, milk made into cheese, flour made into bread, meat into burgers.

Topic 3.4 Food preparation techniques — home

What students need to learn
Knowledge and understanding of names, uses, advantages/
disadvantages and safety issues of food preparation techniques used in
the home:

You should know all of this from your practical work.

  • by hand, using basic equipment, small electrical equipment
  • kitchen scales, measuring jugs, spoons
  • selecting right knife for right job, for example vegetable knife, a
  • small knife for preparing fruit and vegetables
  • colander and sieves
  • grater
  • cutters
  • mixing bowls and pudding basins
  • cake tins, baking trays, bun and muffin tins, cooling tray
  • hand-held whisks
  • balloon, balloon and aerator ball, rotary, spiral (curly) and
  • French
  • electric
  • pastry brush, spatula, fish slice, palette knife, scissors
  • correct pan for correct cooking method, quantity and food material,
  • for example, wok for stir frying
  • rolling pin
  • electrical equipment
  • hand-held and free standing whisk and mixers
  • hand-held and free standing blenders
  • food processor
  • attachments, for example grater/slicer
  • bread maker
  • microwave
  • kettle
  • cleaning
  • peeling
  • size reduction
  • pulp
  • slice
  • dice
  • chop
  • grate
  • mincing
  • mixing and combining
  • blanching.

Topic 3.5 Food processing techniques — home

What students need to learn
Knowledge and understanding of names, uses, advantages/
disadvantages and safety issues of food processing techniques used in
the home:

methods of cooking — moist:
  • boiling
  • poaching
  • steaming
  • stewing
  • braising

methods of cooking — dry:
  • baking
  • roasting
  • grilling
  • barbecuing

other methods:
  • frying
  • microwave
  • other processing methods
  • shaping and forming
  • piping

Topic 3.6 Food preservation techniques — home

What students need to learn
Knowledge and understanding of names, uses, advantages/
disadvantages and safety issues of food preservation techniques used in
the home:
  • freezing
  • drying
  • use of oven or microwave to dry foods, for example, herbs, fruit
  • chemicals
  • acids, for example, lemon juice, vinegar
  • sugar
  • salt.

Topic 3.7 Food preparation techniques — industry

What students need to learn
Knowledge and understanding of names, uses, advantages/ disadvantages and safety issues of food preservation techniques used in industry:
An awareness of the stages in the commercial manufacture of food products using machinery.

See revision guide pages 29-39
  • cleaning
  • peeling
  • sorting
  • size reduction
  • pulping
  • slicing
  • dicing
  • milling
  • grinding
  • shredding
  • chopping
  • grating
  • mixing and combining
  • blanching.

Topic 3.8 Food processing techniques — industry

What students need to learn:
Knowledge and understanding of names, uses, advantages/ disadvantages and safety issues of food processing techniques used in industry:
An awareness that food materials are processed on an industrial scale using large machinery

See revision guide pages 29-39

  • silos and vats for storage of raw materials
  • materials pumped through pipes to preparation area
  • larger versions of domestic equipment, for example, mixing
  • machines, rollers
  • products moved by conveyor belt
  • depositors and injectors to dispense materials
  • traveling ovens
  • blast chillers and freezers.
  • An understanding of the concept of HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point).

Topic 3.9 Food preservation techniques — industry

What students need to learn
Knowledge and understanding of names, uses, advantages/ disadvantages and safety issues of food preservation techniques used in
industry:

See revision guide pages 29-39

  • hot
  • pasteurisation
  • sterilisation
  • UHT (ultra heat treatment)
  • canning
  • cold
  • chilling
  • freezing
  • cook chill/freeze
  • dry
  • sun drying
  • spray drying
  • AFD (accelerated freeze drying)
  • chemical
  • preservatives
  • specialist packaging
  • MAP (modified atmosphere packaging)
  • vacuum packaging.

Topic 3.10 Additives that change

What students need to learn
Knowledge and understanding that additives and standard components are used in both home and industry food processing. Functional
properties and use of the following:

See text book pages 16-17, 37, 88-89
  • sensory characteristics
  • colours
  • flavours
  • artificial sweeteners
  • herbs and spices
  • physical characteristics
  • emulsifiers
  • stabilisers
  • gelling, setting, thickening agents
  • raising agents
  • storage characteristics
  • preservatives
  • antioxidants
  • nutritional characteristics
  • food fortification and use of nutrients
  • aids to processing
  • anti-caking agents
  • other additives
  • acidity regulators and buffers.
  • Chemical names and E numbers of individual additives are not required.

Topic 3.11 Standard components

What students need to learn
A knowledge and understanding that additives and standard components are used in both home and industry food processing. Functional properties and use of the following:
  • pastries and doughs
  • flan cases, pizza bases, pasta
  • powdered mixes
  • cake, biscuit, pastry, scone, bread
  • soups
  • sauces and gravies
  • desserts, for example, cream, custard, lemon meringue pie
  • filling, trifle
  • other standard components
  • stock cubes
  • baking powder
  • pre-blended spices
  • dried and tinned fruit.
  • Chemical names and E numbers of individual additives are not required.

Topic 4.1 Production methods

What students need to learn
A knowledge and understanding of production methods within the food industry:

one-off
  • specialist single items, for example wedding or celebration cake
batch
  • fixed quantities of identical items
  • for stock or to order, for example biscuits, sandwiches, ready-prepared meals, desserts, soups (not canned)
high volume
  • 24/7 production line to produce large quantities of identical items, for example bread, crisps, soft drinks.

Topic 4.2 Product and recipe development

What students need to learn
A knowledge and understanding of product and recipe development within the food industry:

specifications
  • design, product, nutritional, manufacturing
  • meeting user needs, for example, low calorie, sports, functional products, vegetarian, medical diet
recipe modification
  • changing ingredients to make product suitable for a special diet, for example, lactose intolerant, suitable for other cultures,
  • enrichment by adding eggs to dough mixtures
sensory analysis
nutritional analysis
presentation
  • appeal of product, appearance, taste, texture, taste
standard components and uses
finishing processes
  • enhancement of appeal of product, for example, piping and
  • glazing
scaling up of recipe
storage and distribution of commercial food products.

Topic 4.3 Technological development (modern, novel and smart materials)

What students need to learn
Knowledge and understanding of technological development within the
food industry. Modern/novel/smart materials:
man-made
modified starches
functional
nutraceuticals
pre/probiotics
novel function
sweeteners
stabilisers
emulsifiers
gelling agents
specially developed
meat analogues: QuornTM, tofu, soya
biotechnology
chymosin
nano technology.
Knowledge, understanding and advantages/disadvantages of GM
(genetically modified) food.

Topic 4.4 Quality

What students need to learn
Knowledge and understanding of quality within the food industry:
control
checking quality of product during and at end of production
quality control points
visual inspections
weight
random sampling
metal detector tests
assurance
that standards have been met
product meets all points on specification
quality control has been maintained throughout the process
legal requirements have been met
manufacture
accurate weighing and measuring
use of critical dimensions and tolerances
design
creating a design that is well planned and:
is easy to make
has a clear specification
has a clear production process
meets the need of the target group.

Topic 4.5 Issues

What students need to learn
Knowledge and understanding of issues within the food industry:
moral
factory farming
GM
Fairtrade
organic
environmental
food miles
sustainability
pollution
packaging
cultural
religious beliefs
vegetarianism.

Topic 4.6 ICT

What students need to learn
Knowledge and understanding of ICT within the food industry. Students
only need to have an awareness of the uses of ICT:
CAD (computer-aided design)
adding pictures to text, for example, packaging
clipart, scanned images, digital photographs
using CAD packages, for example, product development
spider diagrams, product profiles, packaging nets, food labels,
design ideas
databases
recipes
modelling
nutritional databases
spreadsheets
scaling
costing
stock control
CAM (computer-aided manufacture)
monitors and controls the automatic production of food products
based on set specifications and tolerances
sensors and quality control
single item production, for example, breadmaker
CIM (computer-integrated manufacturing)
all stages in a food production process are integrated and controlled
by computer systems
computers are linked in a network and control both the machinery
and the flow of information during the process
ICT and CAM in single item production
microwave ovens, timers, breadmakers, edible icing printer.

Topic 4.7 Packaging

What students need to learn
Knowledge and understanding of packaging within the food industry:
materials (use of packaging materials)
glass
plastic
metal and foil
paper and cardboard
function of packaging
protection
safety and hygiene
increase shelf life
to contain contents
storage
attract consumer
convey information
uses
suitability for food materials
advantages and disadvantages of packaging materials
specialist packaging and reasons for use
MAP (modified atmosphere packaging)
tamper-evident seals.

Topic 4.8 Labelling

What students need to learn
Knowledge and understanding of labelling within the food industry:
legal information for consumers
name of the food
descriptor (describes product if name does not make this clear,
for example, lasagne)
any special treatment or processing, for example, smoked
the ingredients (in descending order)
additives
instructions for use, cooking, storage
date mark (use, sell by and best before)
net quantity
name and address of manufacture
place of origin
special claims
allergies
nutritional, for example, low in fat or high in fibre
organic
processing and treatments.
Students only need to know that the name of the food must include an
indication of its physical condition or treatment where a purchaser could
be mislead if that information is omitted, for example, milk (UHT), fish
(smoked), cheese (unpasteurised), vegetables (frozen).

Additional information for consumers
nutritional claim (needs to be shown only if a nutritional claim is
made, for example, low in fat)
serving suggestion
average portions
opening instructions
environmental issues, including disposal of waste
additional claims
free from range
dietary guidelines.
Information for retailer and manufacturer
bar codes
batch numbers
best before, use buy and display until.

Topic 5.1 Importance of analysing products

What students need to learn
To understand why product analysis is an important part of product
development:
Who uses it?
Why is it used?

Topic 5.2 How to analyse food products

What students need to learn
To know and understand how to analyse a food product:
analysing products
similar, for example a range of own brand products
ready meals: curry and rice, shepherd’s pie, lasagne, pasta
bake, fish pie
desserts: lemon meringue pie, trifle, fruit flan
comparison, for example, ordinary biscuits with low fat biscuits,
own brand chocolate with market leader, value line meat product
with luxury meat product
consider one-off, batch and continuous products
disassembly
agreed set criteria
sensory analysis of product and components
taste, texture, smell, appearance, flavour
tests
paired preference, hedonic ranking, triangle, duo-trio,
ranking, rating, profiling
weighing of product and components
method of production
individual ingredients used in product
investigate nutritional information
from labelling
from student’s own research
function of ingredients
generating specification for product
packaging
information
environmental issues
shelf life
storage
moral issues
GM ingredients
Fairtrade
irradiated
food miles
cultural issues
designed for a particular cultural group
target market group
value for money
evaluation of product
quality of design
meeting needs of target group
value for money
shelf life
safety
choice and proportion of ingredients and components
does it do what manufacturer claims it can do?
design of packaging
suitability
promotion of product
quality of manufacture
organoleptic (sensory) qualities: appearance, taste, texture, smell,
sound
consistent quality
legal requirements for safety
quality of packaging construction.